DICTIONARY

OF RUNNING AND

FITNESS TERMS

DICTIONARY OF COMMON RUNNING

AND

FITNESS TERMS & ABBREVIATIONS

NUMERICAL

1k – The abbreviation for 1,000 meters, a distance of 0.621 miles or approximately 3,280.8 feet (Not a recognized race distance).

 

3k – The abbreviation for 3,000 meters. In the world of track, this distance is associated with the steeplechase event and is considered a distance event. Runners make bunched standing starts and can break immediately for the inside. The number of laps depends on the position of the water jump – inside or outside the track’s second bend – but competitors must always clear 28 fixed barriers and seven water jumps during a race’s duration. The men’s barriers are 36in (91.4cm) high, the women’s 30in (76.2cm). The water jump’s landing area is 12ft (3.66m) long and 70cm at its deepest (Source: IAAF). This distance is also used in sanctioned track and cross country competitions at the junior and youth levels.

 

5k – The abbreviation for 5,000 meters distance (approximately 3.1 miles). Categorized as a distance event, runners compete over 12-and-a-half laps of a 400m track. They make bunched standing starts and can break immediately for the inside. The most popular distance, by event participation, run by recreational runners in the U.S. (Running USA 2014). The current men’s World record for this distance is held by David Keneisa Bekele of Ethiopia with a time of 12:37.35 run on May 31, 2004. The woman’s World record is held by Tirunesh Dibaba, also from Ethiopia in a time of 14:11.15 on June 06, 2008 (Source: IAAF).

 

10k – The abbreviation for the 10,000 meters distance (approximately 6.2 miles). Categorized as a distance event, runners compete over 25 laps of a 400m track. They make bunched standing starts and can break immediately for the inside. The 10,000 meters has been included in every Olympics since 1912. However, it wasn’t until the 1988 Olympics that this distance was introduced for the women. The current men’s World record for this distance is held by David Keneisa Bekele of Ethiopia with a time of 26:17.53 run on August 26, 2005. The woman’s World record is held by Junxia Wang, of China in a time of 29:31.78 on September 08, 1993 (Source: IAAF).

 

42.2k – Technically, it is 42.195 kilometers (42,195 meters), and is the metric moniker for the “marathon” distance, which equates to approx. 26 miles and 385 yards using the english measurement system. It is the longest running race on the Olympic program. A road race, at major events it has historically finished inside the main stadium, although there have been city centre finishes at several recent international championships (Source: IAAF).

Historically, the event is named after the legendary 26-mile run made by a Greek soldier called Philippedes (also known as Pheidippides) from the scene of the battle of Marathon to Athens, where he announced the defeat of the invading Persians. His mission completed, he promptly died of exhaustion after having apparently also run 150 miles back from Sparta the day before. The organizers of the first modern Olympic Games, held in Athens in 1896, devised the marathon race over 40km to celebrate the achievements of Ancient Greece. The distance then was extended to the imperial measurement of 26 miles at the 1908 Olympics Games in London, and increased another 385 yards when the starting line was pulled back so it could be seen by the children in the Royal Nursery at Windsor and still finish in front of Queen Alexandra at the White City Stadium in west London. This distance was standardized at 26 miles 385 yards (42.195km) in 1921. The current women’s World Record is held by Paula Radcliffe of Great Britain with a time of 2:15.25 set on April 13, 2003. The Men’s World Record is held by Wilson Kiprotich of Kenya with a time of 2:03.23 set on September 29, 2013 (Source: IAAF).

 

50k – Abbreviation for 50,000 meters. Considered an “ultra running distance”. Ultra races are generally contested over two different types of race modalities, either over a set distance or a set time. Examples of the former would be 50km, 100km and longer events while illustrations of the latter would be something like 6hr, 24hr, and multi day events. Both are gaining popularity with the masses and bring their own unique challenges to the racers. Races are organized on: a) trails, where athletes get to enjoy the serene environment of a forest. b) track, when athletes do not have to venture too far from their start/finish areas and are always within visible region. c) road, where athletes can enjoy their road running days and run through both quiet and busy streets. Some ultra races are a combination of two or more of the available terrain, and some also span a few stages and are run over a course of days (Source: IAAF)

 

800m – Positioned as the shortest of the middle-distance events, this event is run over two full laps of a 400m track. 800m athletes utilize a standing start from staggered positions and run in their designated lanes until the end of the first bend, at which point they may break for the inside of the track. The current men’s World record for this distance is held by David Lekuta Rudisha of Kenya with a time of 1:40.91 run on August 9, 2012. The woman’s World record is held by Jarmila Kratochvilova, who ran for Czechoslovakia in a time of 1:53.28 on July 26, 1983 (source: IAAF).

 

1500m – One of the marquee distances in the world of international track, the 1500 meter race is considered a middle distance event. Utilizing a bunched standing start and then breaking immediately for the inside of the track, runners compete over three-and-three-quarter laps of a 400m track. The current men’s World record for this distance is held by Hicham El Guerrouj of Morocco with a time of 3:26.00 run on July 14, 1998. The woman’s World record is held by Yunxia Qu of China, with a time of 3:50.46 run on September 11, 1993 (Source: IAAF).

 

3000m – Please see “3K” for explanation.

 

5000m – Please see “5K” for explanation.

 

10,000m – Please see “10K” for explanation.

ABBREVIATIONS

AAF – The Amateur Athletic Federation (AAF), now known as the LA84 Foundation (as of June 2007), is a private, nonprofit institution created by the Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee to manage Southern California’s endowment from the 1984 Olympic Games. The LA84 Foundation’s mission is to promote and expand youth sports opportunities in Southern California and to increase knowledge of sport and its impact on people’s lives. The LA84 Foundation has initiated programs to meet the youth sports needs of Southern California and to create models that can be applied elsewhere. These include the LA84 Foundation Coaching Education Program.

 

AAU – The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) was founded in 1888 by William Buckingham Curtis to establish standards and uniformity in amateur sport. During its early years the AAU served as a leader in international sport representing the United States in the international sports federations. The AAU worked closely with the Olympic movement to prepare athletes for the Olympic Games. After the Amateur Sports Act of 1978 broke up the AAU’s responsibility as the national Olympic sports governing body, the AAU focused on providing sports programs for all participants of all ages beginning at the local and regional levels. The philosophy of the AAU is “Sports for All, Forever.” The AAU is divided into 56 distinct Districts, which annually sanction 34 sports programs, 250 national championships, and over 30,000 age division events. The AAU events have over 500,000 participants and over 50,000 volunteers (source: Wikipedia).

 

Ach – Acetylcholine is a chemical neurotransmitter in the brain and peripheral nervous system (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

ADP – Adenosine diphosphate is a compound consisting of adenosine with two phosphate groups attached (Martini/Nath 2009). Results when a phosphate group is removed from adenosine triphosphate (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

AMP – Adenosine monophosphate is a nucleotide consisting of adenine with a single phosphate group attached, also called adenosine phosphate (Martini/Nath 2009). Results when two phosphate groups are removed from adenosine triphosphate (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

ATP – Adenosine triphosphate is a high-energy compound consisting of adenosine with three phosphate groups attached; the third phosphate group is attached by a high-energy bond (Martini/Nath 2009). It’s a universal energy-carrying molecule manufactured in all living cells as a means of capturing and storing energy (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

CP – Creatine phosphate (CP) is a high-energy compound in muscle cells; during muscle activity, the phosphate group is donated to ADP; thus regenerating ATP, also called phosphorylcreatine (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

CNS (Central Nervous System) – The brain and spinal cord.

 

Co2 (Carbon Dioxide) – Chemical designation for carbon dioxide, the main byproduct of metabolic processes involving energy conversion; a compound produced by the decarboxylation reactions of aerobic metabolism (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

DOMS – Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness, often associated with repeated eccentric muscle contractions (e.g. running unusual amount of downhill running (Anderson 2013).

 

ETC – The Electron Transport Chain is a series of oxidative reactions that rephosphorylate ADP to ATP (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

ETS – The Electron Transport System is the cytochrome system responsible for most of the energy production in cells; a complex bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

FS – Refers to fast twitch muscle fibers, also known as Type II muscle fibers.

 

HR (Heart rate) – Heart rate refers to the number of times the heart beats in a specified amount of time, usually measured as beats per minute (bpm). Abbreviation for heart rate.

 

HRR (Heart Rate Reserve) – The difference between maximal heart rate and resting heart rate (RHR) (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

IAU – The International Association of Ultra runners (IAU) was officially recognized by the IAAF in 1988.  The IAAF recognizes the IAU as the governing body for the sport of ultra running around the world.

 

PDH – Pyruvate dehydrogenase, is an enzyme complex that catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate via the mitochondria to form acetyl-CoA before entering the Krebs cycle to be converted to ATP, a central compound in metabolism (Diwan 2007).

 

pH – The negative exponent of the hydrogen ion concentration, expressed in moles per liter (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

PNF – Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is a type of stretching that involves a partner and both passive movement and active (concentric and isometric) muscle actions (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

PNS – Peripheral nervous system.

 

SNS – Sypathetic nervous system.

 

ST – Refers to slow twitch muscle fibers also known as Type I muscle fibers.

A

Amateur Athletic Federation (AAF) – Now known as the LA84 Foundation (as of June 2007), is a nonprofit institution created by the Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee to manage Southern California’s endowment from the 1984 Olympic Games. The LA84 Foundation’s mission is to promote and expand youth sports opportunities in Southern California and to increase knowledge of sport and its impact on people’s lives. The LA84 Foundation has initiated programs to meet the youth sports needs of Southern California and to create models that can be applied elsewhere. These include the LA84 Foundation Coaching Education Program (Sportcal 2007).

 

Amateur Athletic Union (AAU)- The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) was founded in 1888 by William Buckingham Curtis to establish standards and uniformity in amateur sport. During its early years the AAU served as a leader in international sport representing the United States in the international sports federations. The AAU worked closely with the Olympic movement to prepare athletes for the Olympic Games. After the Amateur Sports Act of 1978 broke up the AAU’s responsibility as the national Olympic sports governing body, the AAU focused on providing sports programs for all participants of all ages beginning at the local and regional levels. The philosophy of the AAU is “Sports for All, Forever.” The AAU is divided into 56 distinct Districts, which annually sanction 34 sports programs, 250 national championships, and over 30,000 age division events. The AAU events have over 500,000 participants and over 50,000 volunteers (source: Wikipedia).

 

Acceleration – The rate of speed increase over time, is the aspect of speed that determines at what point top speed will be reached (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Acetylcholine (ACh) – A chemical neurotransmitter in the brain and peripheral nervous system (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Acetyl-CoA – An aceytal group bound to coenzyme A, a participant in the anabolic and catabolic pathways for carbohydrates, lipids, and many amino acids. (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Achilles Tendon – The calcaneal tendon, the large tendon that inserts on the calcaneus; tension on this tendon produces extension (plantar flexion) of the foot (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Achilles Tendonitis – An inflammation causing painful swelling or thickening of the Achilles tendon or its surrounding sheath (fascia).

 

Actin – The protein component of microfilaments that forms thin filaments in skeletal muscles and produces contractions of all muscles through interaction with thick (myosin) filaments, relating to sliding filament theory (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Adaptation – The adjustment of an organism to its environment, or the process by which it enhances such fitness. These relatively stable changes caused by a series of training sessions are adaptations (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)– A compound consisting of adenosine with two phosphate groups attached (Martini/Nath 2009). Results when a phosphate group is removed from adenosine triphosphate (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP)- A nucleotide consisting of adenine with a single phosphate group attached, also called adenosine phosphate (Martini/Nath 2009). Results when two phosphate groups are removed from adenosine triphosphate (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) – A high-energy compound consisting of adenosine with three phosphate groups attached; the third phosphate group is attached by a high-energy bond (Martini/Nath 2009). It’s a universal energy-carrying molecule manufactured in all living cells as a means of capturing and storing energy (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Afferent – Toward a center or centerline.

 

Aid Station – Locations strategically situated along a race route (e.g. longer endurance distance races/events) to provide mainly for hydration of the participants, usually consisting of water and/or an electrolyte beverage. In ultra endurance events food may also be provided to facilitate glyocogen replenishment, Minor medical and first aid assistance is also often provided for during these ultra distance events.

 

Aerobic – Aerobic literally means “with oxygen”, and refers to the use of oxygen in a muscles’ energy-generating process. In physical exercise, aerobic exercise is complementary to anaerobic exercise. Aerobic exercise includes any type of exercise, typically those performed at moderate levels of intensity for extended periods of time, that maintains an increased heart rate. There are various types of aerobic exercise. In general, aerobic exercise is one performed at a moderately high level of intensity over a long period of time. In such exercise, oxygen is used to metabolize glucose and fats in order to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the basic energy carrier for all cells. Initially, during aerobic exercise, glycogen is broken down to produce glucose, but in its absence, fat metabolism is initiated instead. The latter is a slow process, and is accompanied by a decline in performance level. The switch to fat as fuel is a major cause of what marathon runners call “hitting the wall.”(source: Science Daily)

 

Aerobic Energy System (Oxidative System) – This energy system utilizes proteins, fats and carbohydrates (glycogen) for re-synthesizing large amounts of ATP without simultaneously generating limiting by-products. This energy system is particularly suited for manufacturing ATP during prolonged, endurance type activities (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000). The oxidative metabolism of blood glucose and muscle glycogen begins with glycolysis. When oxygen is present in sufficient quantities, the end product of glycolysis, pyruvate, is not converted to lactate but is transported to the mitochondria, where it is taken up and enters the Krebs cycle. Following the onset of activity, as intensity increases, there is a shift in substrate preference from fats to carbohydrates. During high-intensity aerobic exercise, almost 100% of the energy is derived from carbohydrates if an adequate supply is available. However, during prolonged, submaximal, steady-state work, there is a gradual shift from carbohydrates back to fats and proteins as energy substrates. (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Aerobic Glycolosis (slow glycolosis) – When, during the process of glycolosis, pyruvate is shuttled into the mitochondria to undergo the Krebs cycle, the ATP resynthesis rate is slower, but can occur for a longer duration if the intensity is low enough (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Aerobic metabolism – The complete breakdown of organic substrates into carbon dioxide and water, via pyruvic acid; a process that yields large amounts of ATP but requires mitochondria and oxygen (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Agonist – A muscle that is shortening to perform a concentric action (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Alternations – A training method promoted by elite coach Renato Canova. Alternations are characterized as a continuous run where segments of slightly faster running at a specified pace are inserted, alternating with periods of slightly slower running at a recovery pace (Magness 2014) .

 

Anabolism – The synthesis of complex organic compounds from simpler precursors (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Anaerobic – Anaerobic means “without” oxygen, and refers to living, active, occurring, or existing in the absence of free oxygen. Exercises that are anaerobic in nature, such as weight lifting or sprinting, produce short-term energy through metabolic processes without the need for oxygen. Anaerobic metabolism produces pyruvate which can be utilized via two different paths: 1) converted into acetyl-CoA via the enzyme Pyruvate Dehydrogenase (PDH); or 2) converted into lactate via the enzyme Lactate Dehydrogenize (LDH).

 

Anaerobic (Phosphagen) Energy System – Also called the anaerobic energy system or sometimes as the anaerobic-alactic energy System, which utilizes an energy-rich compound present in the muscle cell called creatine phosphate (CP). This compound is used for the immediate re-synthesis of ATP following very high intensity exercise without the formation of waste products (i.e. alactic). The resynthesis of ATP from CP continues until all the creatine phosphate stores are significantly reduced (<50% production), which equates to about less than 10 seconds (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Anaerobic–Alactic Energy System – Please see Anaerobic (Phosphagen) Energy System.

 

Anaerobic glycolysis (fast glycolysis)– The process by which glucose or glycogen is broken down to pyruvate to provide high-energy phosphates. At the same time, there is a reduction of co-enzyme NAD, which functions as a hydrogen acceptor (i.e. an electron carrier) and forms NADH2. Pyruvate is reduced by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by releasing the hydrogen to NADH2 to form lactate. It should be noted that lactate is not necessary for the delivery of energy, but serves as a storehouse for the hydrogen ion, and thereby keeps the reaction going. It is the accumulation of these hydrogen ions that become the limiting factor causing fatigue under anaerobic conditions (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Anaerobic Lactate (Glycolytic) System – After 8-10 seconds of high intensity training, CP stores are depleted and the body must look for another source of ATP to maintain that level of intensity, in which case the working muscles must then resort to stored glucose for ATP by using a process called the “Anaerobic Lactate System”. When challenged, the lactate (glycolytic) system, breaks down glucose or glycogen anaerobically, producing energy, plus lactate and hydrogen ions. Eventually, when the demand for energy exceeds the body’s ability to produce energy with oxygen, the muscle will become acidic from the accumulation of the hydrogen ions. It is the presence of the hydrogen ions, not lactate that makes the muscle acidic, which will eventually halt muscle (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Anaerobic Threshold – The breakpoint at which the aerobic system can no longer fully supply the energy needed to sustain a given effort or pace, at which time there is a reliance on the anaerobic system to aid the aerobic system in supplying the required energy needs to make up the deficit (USATF Coaching Curriculum)

 

Anemia – The condition marked by a reduction in the hematocrit, the hemoglobin content of the blood, or both (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Annual Plan – Length of a training period that usually embodies 1-3 macrocycles (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000). Often correlated within the context of a one-year timeframe.

 

Antagonist – A muscle, typically anatomically opposite to the agonist, that can stop or slow down a muscle action caused by an agonist muscle (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Articular – That which pertains to a skeletal joint (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Articular capsule – The dense collagen fiber sleeve that surrounds a joint and provides protection and stabilization (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Articular cartilage – The cartilage pad that covers the surface of the bone inside a joint cavity (Martini/Nath 2009).

B

Ballistic stretching – A type of stretching that involves “active” muscle effort and uses a bounce-type movement in which the end position is not held (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Base Training – Also referred to as general training, where the objective is to ensure that the basic fitness needs of the event are developed to insure that the athlete can withstand the specific demands of the event and supports the stress of specific training (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Beta oxidation – A series of reactions in which free fatty acids are metabolized for energy for aerobic activity (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Bioenergetics – The energy pathways of metabolism. Concerns primarily the conversion of macronutrients— carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, which contain chemical energy into biologically useable forms of energy (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Bohr effect – The increased oxygen release by hemoglobin in the presence of elevated carbon dioxide levels (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Blend Method – Workouts used to emphasize the extremes of speed and endurance by brining them together in a “blended” manner within a session or bout. The focus of either speed endurance or strength endurance can be manipulated depending on the objective of the work bout (Magness 2014).

 

Bottom up method – The bottom up method is characterized by short intervals with very short rest in between reps, with the reps split into sets, with additional rest between sets to make them feasible. As the work bout progresses, the distance of the reps increase gradually, while the number of sets are diminished (Magness 2014).

 

Bracketing – A type of training in which the exercise or sport movement is performed with a lighter-than-normal or heavier-than-normal resistance or intensity (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Burnout – Burnout refers to a state of physical, mental and emotional exhaustion. Burnout negatively affects vitality, purpose, self-concept, and attitudes towards life and sport (Shaufeli, Maslach, Marek, 1993).

 

Bursa – A small sac filled with synovial fluid that functions to cushion adjacent structures (such as bone) and reduces friction (Martini/Nath 2009).

C

Cadence – Synonymous with “stride rate”, cadence refers to the number of steps taken within a specified timeframe, customarily measured as the total number of steps/strides per minute, (inclusive of the numbers for both feet).

 

Calcaneus – The heel bone, also the largest of the tarsal bones (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Callus – A localized thickening of the epidermis due to chronic mechanical stresses (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Capillary – A small blood vessel, located between an arteriole and a venule with walls thin enough to allow the diffusion of gases, nutrients and wastes between plasma and interstitial fluids (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Cardiac Output (CO) (Q) – The amount (quantity) of blood ejected by the left ventricle of the heart each minute, expressed in liters or milliliters (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Cardiac Reserve – The potential percentage increase in cardiac output above resting levels (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Cardiovascular – That which pertains to the heart, blood, and blood vessels (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Cartilage – A type of connective tissue characterized by a gelatinous matrix that contains an abundenace of fibers (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Catabolism – The breakdown of complex organic molecules into simpler components, accompanied by the release of energy (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Circulatory System – The network of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels that facilitate the distribution and circulation of extracellular fluid (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Central Nervous System (CNS) – The brain and spinal cord.

 

Carbon Dioxide (Co2) – Chemical designation for carbon dioxide, the main byproduct of metabolic processes involving energy conversion; a compound produced by the decarboxylation reactions of aerobic metabolism (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Chondromalacia Patellae – Often referred to as “runner’s knee”, it often presents as a painful erosion of the cartilage between the knee joint and the patella (kneecap) that can be caused by some misalignment of the lower leg, creating a condition in which the kneecap does not rack properly as it slides over the joint. Other possible contributory elements include improper running technique, running on uneven surfaces, structural defects, weak quadriceps, or any combination of factors (AAF Cross Country Coaching Manual 2001).

 

Chronograph – Refers to the typical watch used by runners and coaches to time runs and workouts. Usually having a “split” function for sequentially timing individual laps and/or workout segments while keeping track of the overall cumulative time.

 

Coenzymes – Complex organic cofactors; most are structurally related to vitamins (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Cofactor – Ions or molecules that must be attached to the active site before an enzyme can function, examples include several mineral ions and several vitamins (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Collagen – A strong, insoluble protein fiber common in connective tissues (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Concentric action – Action that occurs when a muscle overcomes a load and shortens (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Combo Workout – Workout characterized by the combining of two or more different workout types or intensities. Mostly utilized as transitions or maintenance work, but can be used for cases where specific adaptations are sought (Magness 2014).

 

Competition period – A period of event specific training and important and crucial competitions (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Competition-specific training – Training that involves complete rehearsal of the technical and metabolic demands of the competition.

 

Conditioning – Conditioning is a form of training that enhances stamina and endurance, which are crucial for maintaining strong athletic performance throughout a practice, game or training session. Conditioning develops the body’s ability to meet the energy demands of various sports, both anaerobic and aerobic. Think of conditioning as a precursor to activity specific training, i.e. getting into good enough shape to handle the stresses of quality work sessions and the competitive season (e.g. pre-season training or training base).

 

Connective tissue – One of the four primary tissue types; provides a structural framework that stabilizes the relative positions of the other tissue types (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Contraindication – An activity or practice that is inadvisable or prohibited because of a given injury (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Contusion – Condition in which tissue below the skin (e.g. muscle) is damaged but the skin is not broken; typically caused by excessive external impact (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Coach – One who instructs and trains athletes; an instructor or trainer (Webster’s Dictionary).

 

Competition Period – A timeframe (usually treated as a distinct training phase within a macrocycle) in which training is adjusted to accommodate the needs and demands of racing, usually characterized by reduced volumes, with an emphasis on speed and sharpening work, and tapering before important competitions.

 

Continuous Running – Defined as a running continuously at a given tempo or intensity for a prescribed amount of time and/or volume (USATF Coaching Education –Level I curriculum).

 

Conversational Pace (CP) – Refers to a running/jogging pace that is of low enough intensity to allow for a normal conversation to be conducted by the runner while engaged in the activity. This pace is generally prescribed for easy workouts, recovery runs, and warm-up/cool-down runs.

 

Cool Down – Refers to an easy jog/run or walking at the conclusion of a work session. It allows the heart rate to return to normal in a more gradual manner and aids in flushing byproducts and wastes from the muscle tissues generated during the main work session.

 

Coordination – The harmonious adjustment of a muscle or a group of muscles (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Cori cycle – A gluconeogenic process, taking place in the liver, in which lactate is converted to glucose (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Creatine – A nitrogenous compound, synthesized in the body, that can form a high-energy bond by connecting to a phosphate group and that serves as an energy reserve (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Creatine Kinase – The enzyme that facilitates the re-synthesis of ATP from creatine Phosphate (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Creatine Phosphate (CP) – A high-energy compound in muscle cells; during muscle activity, the phosphate group is donated to ADP; thus regenerating ATP, also called phosphorylcreatine (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Criterion-referenced standard – A method to compare data that involves a combination of normative data and experts’ judgment to identify a specific level of achievement (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Cross Country – Cross country running is both a team and individual sport characterized by running over open-air courses on natural terrain. Race distances can range from 4-12 km (approx. 2.5-7.5 miles). These races are run over varying surfaces including grass, dirt, mud, and sometimes even gravel roads. Courses also often include both flat and hilly terrain passing through woodlands and open country. Races are usually conducted during the fall and winter months under all weather and temperature conditions; including rain, sleet, and snow. Both men and women of all ages compete in cross country, with runners judged on individual finishing times and a points-scoring method for the teams. Many of the rules and traditions of cross country racing that characterize the sport emerged in Great Britain. The English championship became the first national competition in 1876. The first international cross country race was staged in 1898 at Ville d’Avray, France. The first International Cross Country Championships (the forerunner to the IAAF World Cross Country Championships) was held five years later (1903) at Hamilton Park Racecourse in Scotland. The inaugural IAAF World Cross Country Championships took place on 17 March, 1973, in the Belgian town of Waregem. Men’s cross country races have also taken place at three summer Olympics, in 1912, 1920 and 1924.

 

Cross Training – A method of combining several exercise modalities within one exercise or training program.

 

Cruise Intervals – A term coined by legendary coach Jack Daniels for a threshold type workout with tempo run characteristics. These involve running a series of shorter-duration tempo runs at threshold pace (80%-88% of VO2 max or 88-90% of max heart rate), with short recoveries in-between. (i.e. basically a hybrid of a steady-state tempo run at threshold pace, but broken up into shorter and more manageable segments followed by recovery segments). The short recoveries allow for a longer work session (and more volume) at the desired threshold intensity.

D

Date Race Pace (DP) – Current race pace (i.e. the pace you are capable of running in a race if you ran today).

 

Dehydration – A reduction in the water content of the body that threatens homeostasis (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Density – The number of training units per unit of time (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000). Also can refer to the defined rest pause or recovery between work bouts within a session, e.g. between intervals or repeats (Martin/Coe 1997)

 

Dermatitis – An inflammation of the skin (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Dermis – The connective tissue layer beneath the epidermis of the skin (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Detraining – When inactivity, rather than proper recovery follows exercise, an athlete begins to lose training adaptations, which is known as detraining. Aerobic endurance training adaptations are particularly sensitive to periods of inactivity because of their enzymatic basis. When detraining occurs, the individual’s physiological function reverts to a normal, untrained state (Baechle/ Earle 2008).

 

Diaphragm – Any muscular partition; the respiratory muscle that separates the thoracic cavity the abdominopelvic cavity (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Diuresis – Fluid loss at the kidneys; the production of unusually large volumes of urine (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Dopamine – An important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Dorsal – Toward the back, posterior (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Dorsiflexion – Sagittal-plane motion at foot joints (ankle, metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints) during which plantar tissues move away from the support surface, and the dorsum of foot approaches the anterior aspect of lower leg (i.e. flexing the foot/toes upward toward the front of the shin).

 

Double Periodization – An annual plan with to macrocycles and two target/peaks (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Duration – Measure of length of time an exercise session lasts.

 

Dynamic stretching – A type of stretching that utilizes speed of movement and is specific to a sport or movement pattern (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Dyspnea – Shortness of breath.

E

Easy Run – Submaximal intensity run, usually at conversational pace and moderate duration, primarily used to allow for recovery after a quality workout.

 

Eccentric action – Action that occurs when a muscle cannot develop sufficient tension and is overcome by an external load, and thus progressively lengthens (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Edema – The escape of fluid into the surrounding tissues, resulting in swelling (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Electron Transport Chain (ETC) – A series of oxidative reactions that rephosphorylate ADP to ATP (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Electron Transport System (ETS) – The cytochrome system responsible for most of the energy production in cells; a complex bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Elasticity – the ability of a muscle fiber to to return to original resting length after a passive stretch (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Elastin – Connective tissue fibers that stretch and recoil, providing elasticity to connective tissues (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Electrolytes – Electrolytes affect the amount of water in your body, the acidity of your blood (pH), your muscle function, and other important processes. Electrolytes are lost when you sweat and are replaced by drinking fluids that contain electrolytes. Water does not contain electrolytes. Electrolytes can be acids, bases, and salts. Common electrolytes include:

 

Calcium

Chloride

Magnesium

Phosphorous

Potassium

Sodium

 

Endorphins – Neuromodulators, produced in the CNS, that inhibit activity along pain pathways (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Endurance – The capacity to maintain a degree of force or speed in the presence of fatigue (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Enzyme – A protein that catalyzes a specific biochemical reaction (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Epimysium – The connective tissue encasing the entire muscle body (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Erythrocyte – A red blood cell; has no nucleus and contains large quantities of hemoglobin (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Essential amino acids – Amino acids that cannot be synthesized in the body and must be obtained from the diet (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Essential fatty acids – Fatty acids that cannot be synthesized in the body and must be obtained from the diet (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Eversion – A turning outward (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) – The oxygen uptake above resting values used to restore the body to the pre-exercise condition; also termed “oxygen debt” (Earle/Baechle 2004).

F

Fartlek – Means “speedplay” in Swedish, developed by Swedish coach Gosta Holmer in the 1930’s. Classic Fartlek posseses four key features: 1) duration approx. 45 minutes; 2) quick yet relaxed running is spontaneously alternated with easy recoveries; 3) The quick segments are often completed at “faster” than race pace to enhance speed development; 4) Within the “quality” segments of speedplay, there are spontaneously created bursts of superfast speed at near maximal speed for 10-100 meters (Anderson 2013).

 

Fascia – A fibrous tissue that envelops muscles, groups of muscles, and other soft tissue (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Fast Twitch Fiber (FT) (Type II) – A type of muscle fiber type (and motor unit type) that is recruited for anaerobic activity (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Fatigue – A failure to maintain the required, or expected force (Edwards 1981).

 

Fitness – The degree of adaptation to training (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Fatty acid – Hydrocarbon chains that that end in a carboxylic acid group (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Flexibility – The ability of a joint to move through an optimum range of motion (ROM) (Earle/Baechle 2004); amplitude of movement, or an absence of stiffness (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Float – The follow-through and foot descent periods of the forward recovery phase of the gait cycle (Martin/Coe 1997).

 

Foot strike – The initial point of contact made by the foot during the stance phase of the gait cycle. Foot strikes can generally be characterized by what part of the foot makes the initial contact or strike with the running surface, as in a forefoot strike, mid-foot strike, or heel strike. The majority of distance runners are heel strikers.

 

Forward Recovery Phase – Referring to the gait cycle, the forward recovery phase consists of three periods: follow-through, forward swing, and foot descent (Martin/Coe 1997).

Frequency – The number of workouts (exercise sessions) performed in a given time period (typically one week).

 

Functional capacity – The highest rate of oxygen transport and utilization that is reached at maximal physical exertion; also referred to as VO2max (Earle/Baechle 2004).

G

Gait Cycle – Refers to the kinematic action of running consisting of two main phases: the support phase and the recovery phase. Beginning with the support phase, it consists of three distinct periods: footstrike, midsupport, and takeoff; which then transitions into the recovery phase consisting of three more periods: follow-through, forward swing, and foot descent (Martin/Coe 1997).

 

General Training – General exercises that usually doesn’t contain specific elements of the technical or metabolic demands of the competition; also referred to as foundation or base training (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Gluconeogenesis – The formation of glucose from lactate and non-carbohydrate sources (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Goal Race Pace (GP) The pace you want to run in a race.

 

GPS – Global Positioning System

 

Glycogen – A multi-branched polysaccharide that serves as the principal storage form for glucose in the body. Moreover, the glucose from glycogen is readily mobilized and is therefore a good source of energy for sudden, strenuous activity. (Source: National Center for Biotechnology Information)

 

Glucose – A simple six-carbon sugar (monosacharide), and important source of carbohydrate fuel.

 

Glycogenolysis – The breakdown of glycogen (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Glycolysis – The breakdown of carbohydrates (either glycogen stored in the muscles or glucose delivered in the blood) to produce ATP (Earle/Baechle 2004). A metabolic process that converts glucose into energy. The process consists of a series of 10 different chemical reactions that must occur to break down glucose (our body’s most important source of carbohydrate fuel) into pyruvic acid, which releases energy in the form of ATP molecules which can then be used by the bodies muscles to perform work (approx. 1-3 minutes). The real importance of glycolysis to the endurance athlete is that it kick starts the Krebs Cycle which provides for the bulk of the energy requirements for sustained running (i.e. beyond 3 minutes). (Source: Anderson, Owen. Running Science)

 

Goal repetitions – The number of repetitions a runner is assigned to perform in a specific work task and/or session.

Goal setting – A strategy for increasing the level of participation or causing a behavioral change (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Ground Contact Time (GCT) – The amount of time that the foot is in contact with the ground surface during the running gait cycle, usually measured in milliseconds.

H

Half-Marathon – Popular road racing event/distance equivalent to 21.0975 km or approx. 13.1 miles (one-half the full marathon distance of 26 miles, 385 yards).

 

Heart Rate (HR) – Refers to the number of times the heart beats in a specified amount of time, usually measured as beats per minute (bpm). Abbreviation for heart rate.

 

Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) – The difference between maximal heart rate and resting heart rate (RHR) (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Heat Cramps – Are muscle spasms that result from prolonged heavy sweating and inadequate fluid replacement (AAF Cross Country Coaching Manual).

 

Heat Exhaustion – Can be caused by excessive running in the heat or the cumulative effects of inadequate hydration. Symptoms of heat exhaustion are profuse sweating, headache, tingling sensations in the extremities, fogginess, a lack of coordination, trembling, paleness, and breathing difficulties accompanied by extreme fatigue and collapse. Medical attention should be sought as the condition can quickly deteriorate into heat stroke (AAF Cross Country Coaching Manual).

 

Heat Stroke – Is the most serious of the heat related injuries, where sweat losses are so great that the body can no longer cool itself. Symptoms include lack of perspiration, hot dry skin, delirium, seizures, vomiting, cyanosis, and unconsciousness. Heat stroke is a medical emergency, requiring immediate medical attention. (AAF Cross Country Coaching Manual)

 

Hematocrit – The percentage of the volume of whole blood contributed by cells, also called volume of packed red cells (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Hematoma – A tumor or swelling filled with blood (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Hematuria – the abnormal presence of red blood cells in urine (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Heme – A porphyrin ring containing a central iron atom that can reversibly bind oxygen molecules; a component of the hemoglobin molecule (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Hemoglobin – A protein composed of four globular subunits, each bound to a heme molecule; giving red blood cells the ability to transport oxygen in the blood (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Hill Repeats – A workout bout that can be used to provide progression and overload, while also providing a different type of stressor that activates a different muscle fiber recruitment pattern than running on level surfaces. Because, hills require more force to negotiate, a greater number of fibers must be recruited, which in turn necessitates a different motor unit recruitment pattern. The steepness of the incline also plays a role in the more specific type of adaptation emphasis that is sought (Magness 2014).

 

Homeostasis – The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Hormone – A compound that that is secreted by one cell and travels through the circulatory system to affect the activities of cells in another portion of the body (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Hydrolysis – The breakdown of a molecule of ATP to yield energy, a process that requires one molecule of water (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Hyperthermia – An abnormally high body temperature (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Hypertrophy – An increase in tissue size without cell division (Martini/Nath 2009); an increase in the cross sectional area of a muscle fiber (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Hypoglycemia – Blood glucose level of < 65 mg/dl (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Hypothermia – An abnormally low body temperature (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Hypoxia – A low tissue oxygen concentration (Martini/Nath 2009).

I

IAAF – The acronym for the International Association of Athletics Federations. On July 17th, 1912 in Stockholm, Sweden, following the closing ceremony of the Olympic Games in the Swedish capital, the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) was founded as the world governing body for the sport of track and field Athletics. During the ten decades that followed Athletics underwent many changes which reflected the political and socio-economic evolution of the wider world. Even the IAAF’s name changed, in 2001 becoming the ‘International Association of Athletics Federations’ to reflect the growth of a professional sporting world which did not exist in 1912. The IAAF was founded to fulfill the need for a world governing authority, for a competition program, for standardized technical equipment and for a list of official World records. All of these requirements remain today. The IAAF has been headquartered in the Principality of Monaco since 1993.

 

Illiotibial Band (ITB) – Often referred to as the IT band, is a tendon (thickened strip of fascia) that extends from the hip across the outside of the knee and inserts into the tibia (large shin bone) just below the line of the knee joint (Noakes 2003).

 

IT Band Syndrome – Is a common injury among runners. Often characterized by severe pain, well localized over the outside of the knee, directly over the lateral femoral condyle. The pain is absent at rest and only presents during exercise Noakes 2003).

 

Innervation – Stimulation of a muscle cell by a motor nerve (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Inflammation – A non-specific defense mechanism that operates at the tissue level; characterized by swelling, redness, warmth, pain, and some loss of function (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Intensity – The demand or difficulty of an exercise session that determines exercise duration and training frequency (Earle/Baechle 2004). The strength of the stimulus or concentration of work per unit of time; the quality of effort (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Intermittent exercise – Several shorter bouts of exercise interspersed with rest periods (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Isokinetic – Referring to dynamic muscle activity in which a joint moves through a range of motion at a constant velocity (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

In and Outs

 

Intensity (Training Intensity)– Identifies the quality of the effort as measured by speed/pace or duration (Martin/Coe 1997).

 

Interval Training (Aerobic Intervals) – Interval work bouts that are manipulated in such a way as to encourage faster speeds, while producing an aerobic metabolic stress adaptation. Generally characterized by short distances, short rest periods between intervals, with long rest periods between sets, and an overall low total volume (Magness 2014).

J
K

Karvonen Formula – A method to determine exercise heart rate that takes into consideration a client’s age and resting heart rate (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Ketosis – Condition resulting from high levels of ketones in the bloodstream caused by the incomplete breakdown of fatty acids (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Krebs Cycle – A series of reactions that continues the oxidation of glucose, glycogen, or pyruvate to create ATP (Earle/Baechle 2004).

Krebs Cycle – A series of energy creating reactions involving the breakdown of pyruvic acid, which is a byproduct created during the metabolic process of glycolysis. The Krebs cycle also metabolizes fats into an energy source. Overall, the Krebs cycle (also known as the Electron Transport Chain or ETC) can furnish more than 90% of the energy required to run in a sustained steady-state manner. (Source: Anderson, Owen. Running Science)

 

 

Kick – A term generally used to denote a sprint, sudden acceleration, or sustained pickup in pace at the very end of a running race near the finish. Also referred to as the “end spurt phenomenon”, which is the interplay between anaerobic reserve, psychological drive/reward, and a loosening of the biofeedback safety mechanism from the brain (source: Magness, Steve, The Science of Running).

 

Kilometer – Representing 1,000 meters, in the metric system of measurement for length/distance. 1,000 meters is equivalent to approximately 0.62 miles or approximately 3,280.8 feet.

L

Lactate – An end product of glycolysis; most common marker to identify lactic acid accumulation (Earle/Baechle 2004). A compound produced from pyruvic acid under anaerobic conditions (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) – An enzyme

 

Lactic Acid – An end product of the process of glycolysis (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Lactate Threshold (LT) – The exercise intensity at which blood lactate begins an abrupt increase above the baseline concentration (Earle/Baechle 2004). Also defined as the point at which you can no longer meet the energy demands of exercise without lactic acid accumulating in the blood and muscles. Used as a measure that describes your aerobic efficiency, or ability to perform (AAF Cross Country Coaching Manual 2001).

 

Lateral – Pertaining to the side.

 

Law of Overload – The principle stating that the nature of loading must challenge an athlete’s present fitness status (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Law of Reversibility – The principle that states that when there is no training load, and consequently no need to adapt, the fitness level of the athlete will return to a level consistent with the demand of the training (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Law of Specificity – The principle that states that the training load must be specific to the individual athlete and the event for which the athlete is training (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Ligament – A dense band of connective tissue fibers that attaches one bone to another (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Load – In resistance training, the amount of weight assigned to an exercise set. In aerobic endurance activities, load often refers to the intensity of the bout (e.g. submaximal or maximal).

 

Long Run – Generally, the longest session by relative distance or duration of a weekly/bi-weekly training regimen.

 

LSD – In running, this acronym refers to “Long Slow Distance”.

M

Main Competition Phase – The phase of training dedicated to the optimum achievement in competition (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Maintenance Workout – A workout designed to “maintain” a performance component once it has been satisfactorily built, with the premise being that once a component has been built, it requires less effort/work to maintain it. These type workouts are characterized by a smaller stimulus performed on an expanded frequency (e.g. approx. every 2-weeks)(Magness 2014).

 

Marathon – Technically, it is 42.195 kilometers (42,195 meters), and is the metric moniker for the “marathon” distance, which equates to approx. 26 miles and 385 yards using the english measurement system. It is the longest running race on the Olympic program. A road race, at major events it has historically finished inside the main stadium, although there have been city centre finishes at several recent international championships (Source: IAAF).

Historically, the event is named after the legendary 26-mile run made by a Greek soldier called Philippedes (also known as Pheidippides) from the scene of the battle of Marathon to Athens, where he announced the defeat of the invading Persians. His mission completed, he promptly died of exhaustion after having apparently also run 150 miles back from Sparta the day before. The organizers of the first modern Olympic Games, held in Athens in 1896, devised the marathon race over 40km to celebrate the achievements of Ancient Greece. The distance then was extended to the imperial measurement of 26 miles at the 1908 Olympics Games in London, and increased another 385 yards when the starting line was pulled back so it could be seen by the children in the Royal Nursery at Windsor and still finish in front of Queen Alexandra at the White City Stadium in west London. This distance was standardized at 26 miles 385 yards (42.195km) in 1921. The current women’s World Record is held by Paula Radcliffe of Great Britain with a time of 2:15.25 set on April 13, 2003. The Men’s World Record is held by Wilson Kiprotich of Kenya with a time of 2:03.23 set on September 29, 2013 (Source: IAAF).

 

Macrocycle – The largest division of a training year or season consisting of preparation, competition, and transition (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000). The largest periodization division, typically composed of two or more mesocycles (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Maximal Heart Rate (MHR) – The actual maximum heart rate (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Maximum Heart Rate – See also maximal heart rate, often denoted as heart rate max (HRM).

 

Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO2max)- The greatest amount of oxygen that can be utilized at the cellular level for the entire body (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Medium Run –Generally, a session with a relative distance or duration that ranges somewhere between what is considered a short run and a long run.

 

Meniscus – A fibrous cartilage pad between opposing surfaces in a joint (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

MesoCycle – A training period consisting of typically 4-6 microcycles (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000). A division of a periodized program that lasts from several weeks to a few months (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Metabolism – The sum of all biochemical processes under way within the human body at any moment; includes anabolism and catabolism (Martini/Nath 20090.

 

Metatarsal Bone – One of five bones of the foot that articulate with the tarsal bones (proximally) and the phalanges (distally) (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Microcycle – A group of training sessions typically over a 7-day period of time (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000). A division of a periodized program that lasts from one to four weeks and can include daily and weekly training variations (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Mile – The “mile” equates to a measured distance of 5,280 feet (1,760 yards or approximately 1,609 meters) and is considered one of the iconic distances within competitive track & field running events in the U.S. and Britain. The mile race is categorized as a middle distance event, requiring a combination of speed and endurance. The men’s outdoor World record of 3:43.13 was set in 1999 and is held by Hicham El Guerrouj of Morocco. The women’s outdoor World record of 4:12.56 was set in 1996 and is held by Russia’s Svetlana Masterkova (Source: IAAF).

 

Mode – The specific type of exercise or activity that will be performed during an exercise session (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Modeling – A training unit in which competition requirements are simulated (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Motor Unit – A motor nerve and all the muscle fibers it innervates (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Mitochondria – Speciallized cellular organeeles where the reactions of aerobic metabolism occur (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Muscle – A contractile organ composed of muscle tissue, blood vessels, nerves, connective tissues, and lymphatic vessels (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Muscle Recruitment – A means of varying skeletal muscle force involving a process that increases force through varying the number of motor units activated (Earle/Baechle 2004).

N

Negative Split – The time to run an identical measured distance (e.g. lap) is less than earlier completions of the same distance.

O

Overload – A training stress or intensity greater than what the participant is accustomed to.

 

Overreaching – An overtrained state lasting a brief period of time, perhaps just a few days, as distinguished from overtraining syndrome, which can last for an extended period of time. Unplanned overreaching should be considered a warning sign of full-fledged overtraining (Baechle/ Earle 2008).

 

Overstriding – A walking or running gait in which the foot hits too far in front of the body’s center of gravity, causing a braking effect (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Overtraining – A condition typically caused by extreme levels of training frequency, volume, intensity, or a combination of these variables without sufficient rest or recovery. The result of overtraining is termed the overtraining syndrome, or sometimes referred more simply as “Staleness”. An athlete can remain overtrained for an extended period of time and have difficulty recovering quickly, even with what may seem as sufficient rest, which appears especially prevalent when overtraining is associated with aerobic endurance training. (Baechle/ Earle 2008).

 

Oxidative system – The primary source of ATP at rest and during aerobic activities (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Oxygen debt – See excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC).

 

Oxygen deficit – The difference between the amount of oxygen required for exercise and the amount of oxygen actually consumed during exercise (Earle/Baechle 2004).

P

Pace – The rate of movement or progress; the rate of speed or velocity in running or walking. In running, a pace is generally expressed in terms of minutes per mile or kilometer (e.g. 5:30/mile or 7 min. per mile). Sometimes referred to as the tempo.

 

Pace/Tempo training – A type of training program that involves an exercise intensity at the lactate threshold (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

PAR-Q (Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire) – An assessment tool to initially screen apparently healthy clients who want to engage in low-intensity exercise and identify clients who require additional medical screening (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Passive warm-up – A type of warm-up that involves receiving external warmth or tissue manipulation (e.g. hot shower, heating pad, or massage)(Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) PDH is an enzyme complex that catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate via the mitochondria to form acetyl-CoA before entering the Krebs cycle to be converted to ATP, a central compound in metabolism (Diwan 2007).

 

Periodization – The systematic process of planned variations in a training program during the course of a training cycle (Earle/Baechle 2004). The continuous cyclical structure of training to achieve optimal development of performance capacities (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Peaking – A term often used by athletes and coaches to describe a state of optimal level of conditioning; physically, emotionally and mentally, often for a specified timeframe or specific event (e.g. the world championships).

 

Period – Consists of several phases grouped together, there are generally three periods within a seasonal cycle.

 

Phase – A collection of mesocycles in pursuit of a specific objective (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Phosphagen System – The primary source of ATP for short-term, high-intensity activities (e.g. sprinting) (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Plasticity – The tendency of a muscle to assume a new and greater length after a passive stretch even after the load is removed (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Plantar Fasciitis – Inflammation of the plantar fascia, which is a wide sheet of connective tissue that runs from the bottom of the heel bone (Calcaneus) to the ball of the foot, supporting the longitudinal arch when running on the toes and also when the foot flattens upon landing (AAF Cross Country Coaching Manual 2001).

 

Plantar Flexion – Ankle extension; toe pointing (Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Postural alignment – The proper body position in which the head is upright, the shoulders are relaxed, but not rounded, and the pelvis is slightly tilted posteriorly to align the torso over the pelvis (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Pre-Competition Phase – A phase of training in which one will see the vigorous development of a specific skill and fitness. The training in this phase begins to address event-specific objectives (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

PR – (Personal Record) – An individual’s best, clocked time, for a specific event or distance.

 

Preparation Period – The period of foundational training and developmental competitions (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Preparation Phase – Phase of training in which the objectives of “training to train” dominate (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Principle of Overload – The principle stating that the nature of loading must challenge an athlete’s present fitness status (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Principle of Reversibility – States that when there is no training load, and consequently no need to adapt, the fitness level of the athlete will return to a level consistent with the demands of training (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Principle of Specificity – The principle that states that the training load must be specific to the individual athlete and to the event for which the athlete is training (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Progression – Referring to the gradual and consistent increase in the intensity or load of an exercise program (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Progressions – A type of run characterized as being of moderate intensity, starting out at any easy pace and gradually progressing to marathon pace or slightly faster by the end of the run. Generally used in place of a distance run during the base building period (Magness 2014)

 

Progressive Overload – The methodical increase in the training load above that which the athlete is accustomed (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Prone – Lying face down.

 

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) – A type of stretching that involves a partner and both passive movement and active (concentric and isometric) muscle actions (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Proprioceptor – Specialized receptors in muscles, joints, and tendons that relay messages to the central nervous system about body and limb movements (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Pronation – Refers to foot/ankle action occurring during the support phase of the gait cycle consisting of: dorsiflexion, calcaneal, eversion, and external rotation (Martin/Coe 1997).

 

Pickups – Refer to a gradual sustained increase in pace in the final few minutes of a run, near the end (Magness 2014).

 

Pyramid Training – A type of training variation in which the load is progressively increased in sequential sets with a corresponding decrease in the number of goal repetitions (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Pyruvate – A precursor of lactic acid during the final steps of glycolysis (Earle/Baechle 2004).

Q
R

Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) – Also known as the rate of perceived exertion scale, or as the commonly used “Borg Scale”, these scales are designed to help monitor exercise intensities through a rating system that accounts for all the body’s responses to a particular exercise intensity (Earle/Baechle 2004)..

 

Recovery – Defined as the rebuilding of damaged structures between workouts and the replenishment of energy stores within the muscles (Anderson 2013).

 

Recovery Run – Similar to normal distance runs, except the pace is deliberately kept slower, while the duration is also kept shorter. The purpose of this type run is to enhance and facilitate recovery and are generally used in the day following a more intense workout (Magness 2014).

 

Recruitment – The process in which tasks that require more force involve the activation of more motor units (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Respiration – The exchange of gases between cells and the environment; includes pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, internal respiration, and cellular respiration (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Respiratory minute volume – The amount of air moved into and out of the respiratory system each minute (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Rest Period/Interval – The time interval between reps and/or sets (can also be “active” rest such as jogging between higher intensity reps).

 

Resting Heart Rate (RHR) – The heart rate associated with the participant’s resting metabolic rate. (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Resting metabolic rate (RMR) – A measure of the calories required for maintaining normal metabolism (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Repetitions (Reps) – The number of times a movement of an exercise or activity is completed.

 

Road Runners Club of America (RRCA) – Founded in 1958, The Road Runners Club of America is the oldest and largest national association of running clubs, running events, and runners dedicated to promoting running as a competitive sport and as healthy exercise. The mission of the RRCA is to promote the sport of running through the development and growth of running clubs and running events throughout the country. The RRCA supports the common interests of runners of all abilities during all stages of life by providing education and leadership opportunities along with programs and services that benefit all runners. The Road Runners Club of America is the national organization dedicated to promoting the development and growth of running clubs, running events, and supporting the interests of recreational runners throughout the country. The RRCA strives to provide quality programming that can be replicated throughout the country by member clubs from small towns to large cities. These programs promote and support running and runners at all stages in life. The RRCA is dedicated to providing the running community with educational information and programs that will keep them safe, healthy, and informed. Furthermore, the RRCA strives to promote excellence in nonprofit management by providing services, benefits, and regular communication that supports this vision.

 

Running Economy (RE) – Running economy is generally defined as the “oxygen cost” of running at a specific speed, usually expressed in milliliters of oxygen consumed per kilogram of body weight per minute (ml/kg/min.) Basically, running economy is the difference between the oxygen content of incoming and outgoing air over the course of 1 minute at a given pace (Anderson 2013).

 

Running Form – Refers to the technique or biomechanics of running, which can vary significantly among individuals. That being said, there are general guidelines that are generally accepted representing a model of what “good running form” should entail. These guidelines often involve a comprehensive set of body mechanics, often including posture, pelvic tilt, head/shoulder position, arm swing dynamics, and gait cycle dynamics.

 

Running Speed – Is a function of stride length and stride frequency/cadence (AAF Cross Country Coaching manual 2001).

S

Sagittal plane – A vertical plane that divides the body into left and right portions (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Sarcopenia – Muscle loss due to aging (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Sciatic Nerve – A nerve innervating the postmedial portion of the thigh and leg

(Martini/Nath 2009).

 

Set – A group of repetitions that are performed consecutively (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Side Stitches – Side stitches are generally thought to be muscle spasms caused by the conflicting movement of internal organs and the diaphragm while running. If the the diaphragm moves up as the organs move down, pain and spasm can result from the strain placed on the intercostal (rib) muscles. Two-thirds of all stitches occur on the right side of the abdomen, with the theory being that the proximity and weight of the liver is a contributory factor. Other factors that may contribute to stitches include: breathing patterns, weight of a full stomach, lack of fitness, starting too fast, improper warm-up, running downhill, or on hard surfaces, and cold weather (AAF Cross Country Coaching Manual 2001).

 

Shin Splints – A generic, non-medical term for localized pain in the front of the lower leg (tibia). This pain is generally attributed to inflammation of the tendon of the tibialis posterior muscle or the soft tissue between the tibia and fibula (AAF Cross Country Coaching Manual 20010).

 

Single Periodization – An annual plan with one macrocycle (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Size Principle – refers to the recruitment of larger and more motor units as a response to an increased force requirement (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Slow Twitch Fiber (ST) – A type of motor unit and muscle fiber type (Type I) that is recruited for aerobic activity (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Somatic Nervous System (SNS)- The efferent division of the nervous system that innervates skeletal muscles (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Special Preparation – A phase of training with the objective of continued Phase foundational development, but with a trend toward special training (i.e. event-specific) (USATF Coaching Education-Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands (SAID) – Is a phenomenon whereby our bodies adapt to exercise or physical stress in direct response to the nature of the demands imposed. This means that training needs to be address the specific requirements of the sport being trained for (AAF Cross Country Coaching Manual 2001).

 

Specific Warm-Up – A type of warm-up that involves performing movements that mimic the sport or activity, e.g. slow jogging before running (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Speed – The capacity to move the body or a body segment rapidly (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Speed Endurance – The ability to maintain running speed over an extended duration (Earle/Baechle 2004)

 

Speed strength – The application or development of maximum force at high velocities (Earle/Baechle 2004)

 

Speed Training – Usually accomplished with buildups, strides, and sprints.

 

Splits – A common term used in many forms of racing, usually denoting the time duration to traverse a segment of a race divided into a number of equal distance segments. For example a 1-mile race would be “split” into 4 quarters, 6-mile race would have (6) 1-mile splits, etc. useful for monitoring pace and staying on target for the race time goal.

 

Sprain – Injury to a ligament (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Sprints – Characterized as running at maximal speed over a short distance (e.g. 100m, 200m, and 400m), a predominantly anaerobic event distance (i.e. >90% anaerobic).

 

Steady-Pace – Training pace below the lactate threshold (see also steady state training) (AAF Cross Country Coaching Manual 2001).

 

Steady-State Training – Also referred to as steady-pace training, Training intensity characterized by a balance between the demands of the activity and aerobic energy production, where lactic acid does not accumulate in the muscles, allowing the activity to continue for an extended period of time (AAF Cross Country Coaching Manual 2001).

 

Steeple Chase – This event has its origins in Britain; runners would race from one town’s steeple to the next, jumping obstacles such as streams and low walls. The current event can be traced to the two-mile steeplechases run at Oxford University in the mid-19th century. It was made a track event, with barriers, at the 1879 English Championships. The current format has been contested by men – initially over varying distances – in every Olympic Games since 1900. The women’s event was introduced as recently as 2008. Runners make bunched standing starts and can break immediately for the inside. The number of laps depends on the position of the water jump – inside or outside the track’s second bend – but competitors must always clear 28 fixed barriers and seven water jumps during a race’s duration. The men’s barriers are 36in (91.4cm) high, the women’s 30in (76.2cm). The water jump’s landing area is 12ft (3.66m) long and 70cm at its deepest (source: IAAF).

 

Strain – Injury to a muscle (Earle/Baechle 2004)

 

Strength– The ability to apply force (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) – The series of three phases that explains the mechanical and neurophysiological reactions to a plyometric movement (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Stride Frequency – The number of steps per minute. Also referred to as cadence.

 

Stride length – The distance covered with each step.

 

Stride (Striders) – Short repeats of 80-150m done at faster speeds (usually between 5k and 1-mile pace) with plenty of recovery, usually done post-run (Magness 2014). Shorter strides 40-50m are sometimes used during pre-race or high intensity workouts.

 

Stride Rate – Refers to the number of strides (steps) taken per minute.

 

Super compensation – returning to a level of fitness beyond that of the original, following the fatigue resulting from training (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Supinatation – Refers to foot/ankle action occurring during the support phase of the gait cycle consisting of: plantar flexion, calcaneal inversion, and internal rotation (Martin/Coe 1997).

 

Supine – Lying down on the back, facing up.

 

Support Phase – Refers to the gait cycle, the support phase consists of three distinct periods: footstrike, midsupport, and takeoff (Martin/Coe 1997).

 

Surging A surge is a planned and significant increase in pace at a predetermined location or point in a race, with the intent being to break away from the rest of the field by creating a gap that following runners are unwilling or unable to close. Once the gap is established, the surging runner settles back into their normal race pace.

T

Target heart rate range (THRR) – The minimum and maximum heart rates per unit of time that are assigned for an aerobic exercise bout (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Tempo Pace – The pace (aerobic threshold pace) utilized in a tempo or threshold run, commonly described as “comfortably hard”, is usually at or slightly above the lactate threshold.

 

Tempo Run – Tempo runs are also referred to as “threshold runs” which are performed at a pace that can be maintained for 15-35 minutes (at what is often described as a “comfortably hard” pace), putting the athlete at, or slightly above, the anaerobic or lactate threshold (AAF Cross Country Coaching Manual 2001).

 

Tendinitis – Inflammation of a tendon.

 

Threshold Run – Characterized as a type of training run designed to progressively increase running velocity at lactate threshold by training at paces at or slightly above lactate threshold. See also tempo training run (Anderson 2013).

 

Tidal volume – The amount of air moved during inhalation or exhalation with each breath (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Top Down Method – One of the classic Interval type workouts, where intervals of a specified distance were run at date pace and then progressively increased to goal race pace as the training period/phase progresses (Magness 2014).

 

Training – The process of acquiring fitness specific to an event (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Training age – The number of years spent in specialized training for an event (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Training Theory – The interpretation of relevant work that provides a systematic and scientific program to mesh with practical coaching experience (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Training ratio – The ratio between training and recovery (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Training session – The combination of several training units of a complimentary nature (typically called a workout) (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Training unit – The segment of a session that meets the objective of one training component/biomotor element (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Transition Period – The link between two macrocycles when the objective is restoration (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000).

 

Training Zone – The purpose of a training zone is to elicit a specific physiological and metabolic adaptation in order to improve performance. These zones are typically correlated to different training intensities, physiological stressors, and muscle recruitment patterns which in turn relate closely with the energy system and substrate that is to be activated. Training zones are often used in programs that utilize heart rate or a power meter (cycling) as a means to establish the training zones (Millán 2014).

 

Turnover – The frequency of steps or strides taken while running, usually quantified as the number of strides per minute, see also cadence.

 

Type I Muscle Fiber – Slow-twitch muscle fibers are characteristically involved in energy production for prolonged aerobic activities, such as long distance running. They are described as fatigue resistant, as compared to fast twitch fibers, which fatigue easily. The slow-twitch fibers have a less developed sarcoplasmic reticulum, which relates to a slower level of calcium ion-handling capability and a low activity level of myosin ATPase; this in turn inhibits the speed of hydrolysis of ATP. In addition, the glucose and glycolytic control capacity is less developed than in fast-twitch fibers. However, Type I fibers contain a large number of mitochondria and mitochondrial enzymes, which enhances their aerobic metabolism capacity. Type I fibers are described as slow-oxidative or SO fibers, which refers to their high involvement in aerobic metabolism and their slower rate of shortening. The SO fibers also have a greater capacity for blood flow, a structural and functional adaptation resulting from their greater need for oxygen delivery (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Type II Muscle Fiber – Fast-twitch muscle fibers have the ability to generate rapid, powerful muscle actions, due to a number of metabolic factors such as a speedy level of calcium ion release, a high level of myosin ATPase, and a highly developed sarcoplasmic reticulum. The type II fibers speed of shortening is and force development is three to five times faster than that of slow-twitch fibers. In contrast to slow-twitch fibers, type II fibers use predominantly a blood glucose and muscle glycogen fuel source and thus are predominantly recruited in anaerobic type activities (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Type IIa Muscle Fiber – Fast twitch (Type II) muscle fibers can be further subdivided into two primary groups: Type IIa and Type IIb. Both Fast-twitch and slow-twitch muscle fibers can exist as “pure fibers” (i.e. containing only one type of myosin heavy chain) or as hybrids, containing multiple forms. The Type IIa fibers are considered intermediate fibers, having a moderate capacity for anaerobic and aerobic energy production. And are often referred to as “fast-oxidative-glycolytic“ or FOG fibers. The Type IIb muscle fibers exhibit the most extensive anaerobic potential and are commonly referred to as the fast-glycolytic or FG fibers (Earle/Baechle 2004).

U

USA Track & Field (USATF) – USA Track & Field (USATF) is the national governing body for the sports of track and field, cross country running, road running and racewalking in the United States. USATF was known for a number of years as The Athletics Congress (TAC) after its spin off from the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), which governed the sport in the US since its founding in 1878 and through most of the 20th century until the Amateur Sports Act of 1978 dissolved its powers and responsibilities. USATF functions as a non-profit organization with a membership of nearly 100,000 and is based in Indianapolis, Minnesota. The organization is led by an elected President (Stephanie Hightower) and a full-time CEO (former NASCAR executive Max Siegel). USATF is involved in many aspects of the sport at the local, national, and international level’s providing the rules, officials, coaching education, sports science and athlete development, youth programs, masters (age 40+) competition, and the National Track & Field Hall of Fame. It also organizes the annual USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships, as well as the annual US Junior Olympics National Championships for Track and Field and Cross Country.

 

Unit – A single component of a training session (e.g. stretching, drills, weightlifting, plyos, running, etc.) (AAF Cross Country Coaching Manual 2001).

 

United States Olympic Committee (USOC) – Founded in 1894 and headquartered in Colorado Springs, Colo., the United States Olympic Committee serves as both the National Olympic Committee and National Paralympic Committee for the United States. As such, the USOC is responsible for the training, entering and funding of U.S. teams for the Olympic, Paralympic, Youth Olympic, Pan American and Parapan American Games, while serving as a steward of the Olympic Movement throughout the country. In addition to its international Games responsibilities and its work to advance the Olympic Movement, the USOC aids America’s Olympic and Paralympic athletes through their National Governing Bodies, providing financial support and jointly working to develop customized, creative and impactful athlete-support and coaching education programs. The USOC also supports U.S. Olympic and Paralympic athletes on and off the field of play through programming such as direct athlete funding, health insurance, tuition grants, media and marketing opportunities, career services and performance-based monetary rewards. In addition, the Olympic Training Center facilities provide athletes with performance services, including sports medicine; strength and conditioning; psychology, physiology and nutrition assistance; and performance technology. Additionally, the USOC oversees the process by which U.S. cities bid to host the Olympic/Paralympic Games, the Youth Olympic Games or the Pan/Parapan American Games, while also playing a supporting role in the bid processes for hosting a myriad of other international competitions. Further, the USOC approves the U.S. trials sites and procedures for the Olympic, Paralympic, Youth Olympic, Pan American and Parapan American Games team selections (teamusa.org 2014).

 

Ultra Marathon – Please see discussion on ultra running.

 

Ultra Running – Also referred to as ultra marathoning or ultra distance running, Ultra running can be characterized as distances in excess of 26.2 miles (marathon distance). That being said, the shortest official distance considered an ultra is the 50 kilometer distance (31.07 miles). Other standard distances include the 50-mile, 100-mile, 100km, and a series of events that last for a specified time period, e.g. 6-hour, 12-hour, 24-hour, 48-hour, and 6-days (ultrarunning.com 2014). The International Association of Ultra Runners (IAU) was officially recognized by the IAAF in 1988.  The IAAF recognizes the IAU as the governing body for the sport of ultra running around the world (IAAF).

V

Variation – A purposeful change of the program design variable assignments to expose participant to new or different training stressors (Earle/Baechle 2004).

 

Volume – The extent of training; the quality of work performed (USATF Coaching Education -Sports Sciences, Schexnayder 2000). In running, it generally refers to the amount of activity measured in miles/kilometers or as duration (e.g. hours running per session/day/week/month/year).

 

Vo2 Max – Also called maximal aerobic capacity, is a measurement of maximum amount of oxygen that can be utilized for aerobic energy production over a given of time. It is used both to quantify the capacity of the aerobic system and also as a potential performance indicator. In simple terms it tells us how much oxygen you can use each minute, expressed in terms of milliliters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute, which indicates that VO2max is measured relative to one’s body weight. Calculation of Vo2 max involves use of the “Fick” equation( AAF Cross Country Coaching Manual 2001).

W

Warm Up – A warm up is an important pre-performance activity designed to prepare the athlete mentally and physically for the exercise session or competition, by increasing muscle temperature, core temperature, and blood flows as well as disrupt transient connective tissue bonds. Evidence suggests that a proper warm-up may also have a positive influence on injury prevention (Bachle/Earle 2008).

 

Wolff’s Law – The deposition of bone tissue (i.e. an increase in bone density) as a response to mechanical stress (Earle/Baechle 2004)

 

Work-to-rest ratio – the relationship between the duration of the exercise interval and that of the recovery interval (Earle/Baechle 2004).

XYZ

Yasso 800’s – A workout routine attributed to Bart Yasso, Race Services Manager at Runner’s World. The basic premise is that if you can “consistently” run a series of 800meter intervals in a specified time, then that time will equate to your estimated potential marathon finishing time. For example, if you are capable of running 10x 800m intervals in a time of 3:30 each, with easy recoveries between not exceeding the time duration for those 800’s, one should be able to complete a marathon in 3 hours and 30 minutes. (Source: Runner’s World, September 2001)

The explanations presented in this running dictionary are derived from a number of sources and/or from the author’s own experience. Many terms can have multiple or different meanings and nuances specific to coaches, schools of thought, and written works. This list is by no means all inclusive and complete. This dictionary is presented as a service to guests and users of our website, and is designed to merely provide a simple reference guide to many of the common terms, abbreviations and jargon often used in the running and fitness oriented community. Running Workx makes no guarantee of the accuracy or validity of the definitions and explanations presented herein.

ANY AND ALL INFORMATION CONTAINED ON THIS WEBSITE IS NOT INTENDED TO TAKE THE PLACE OF MEDICAL ADVICE FROM A HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONAL. EXERCISE, DIET AND HEALTH RELATED MATTERS VARY FROM PERSON TO PERSON. NOTHING ON THIS WEBSITE SHALL BE CONSIDERED, OR USED AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR, MEDICAL ADVICE, DIAGNOSIS OR TREATMENT. ANY ACTION WHATSOEVER WHICH IS TAKEN BASED ON THE CONTENTS OF THIS WEBSITE OR ANY OF ITS RELATED SITES, MATERIALS, PRODUCTS OR INFORMATION IS TO BE USED SOLELY AT YOUR OWN DISCRETION, RISK AND LIABILITY. YOU SHOULD ALWAYS CONSULT THE APPROPRIATE HEALTH PROFESSIONALS ON ANY MATTER THAT IS RELATED TO YOUR HEALTH AND WELL BEING BEFORE PROCEEDING WITH ANY ACTION PERTAINING TO HEALTH RELATED ISSUES, ESPECIALLY IF YOU ARE PREGNANT, NURSING, ELDERLY, OR HAVE ANY PREEXISTING MEDICAL CONDITIONS.